~60 GHz) necessary for such applications other absorption/reflection phenomena can compromise transmission: e.g. This is not due to the attenuation of the wave itself but how the physics of antenna's works. So in this kind of situation, if the environment have many obstruct matter, lower frequency can travel farther than higher frequency Actually it about wavelength. Manu higher frequency transmitters are also designed with frequency hopping and encryption of some sort. Wavespeed and wavespeed variation with frequency are exclusively properties of … Frequencies The eminent physicist and co-founder of string theory, Michio Kaku, has said: “If you have a radio in your living room…and you have all frequencies in your living room; BBC, Radio Moscow, ABC, but your radio is tuned to one frequency—you’re decohered from all the other frequencies. Speech usually falls within the 100 and 8000 Hz range. @OptimalCynic, This question should have a home on either site, in my opinion, but others may disagree. The chemical composition of the barrier The main advantage of higher frequencies is that they require shorter antennas for decent reception quality, and that's important for mobile devices. Some may have experience with this whether they know it or not: WiFi signals may travel outside of a building over a shorter range when it is raining because signals are absorbed in wet foliage, walls, and air space. Will you still feel hungry when nutrients are artificially sent through your bloodstream? AM and FM refer to amplitude modulation and frequency modulation. -Carl Sagan, Cosmos. What does frequency have to do with attenuation over distance? In telecommunication, free-space path loss (FSPL) is the loss in signal strength of an electromagnetic wave that would result from a line-of-sight path through free space (usually air), with no obstacles nearby to cause reflection or diffraction. Most frequencies in AM radio are in kilohertz versus FM radio are in megahertz. Does it depend on the amplitude or energy of the wave? Whether you can pick it up on your radio is irrelevant to how far it travels. When we use tools like uranium dating and carbon dating to identify the ages of objects, how are we sure of the starting concentration of those materials such that we can date the objects by measuring the concentration of those materials remaining in the objects? Do waves with lower frequency travel further than waves with higher frequency? Subject question: What's the difference between how HF and VHF/UHF radio waves … So, the short answer is no, higher frequencies aren't able to go better through walls than low frequencies. In the electromagnetic spectrum, do Gamma rays and X-rays have good penetration because they have high frequency? What you are thinking of is the Doppler effect, in which a moving SOURCE creates a given frequency sound wave (which has a certain wavelength), which when received by a stationary listenerseems to have a longer or shorter wavelength. These frequencies have the advantage of being able to travel long distances. Is this true? It can find a path through partial obstructions more easily than lower frequency, large waves can. AM/FM radio, visible light, IR light, UV light) there are certain atmospheric windows that exist were electromagnetic radiation propagates very easily. [–]Perlscrypt 1 point2 points3 points 7 years ago (0 children). 1. So AM is lower frequency as applied to the standard band in America. For example, If i'm in Milwaukee, which is 90miles away from Chicago, I can still pick up Chicago AM stations, but I can't get any Chicago FM stations. One can see from the graph and formulas that the absorption coefficient is higher for a higher frequency and/or a higher pressure. Three things happen to EM radiation when it encounters a barrier. Evolutionary Biology | Ecology | Functional Morphology, Genetics | Gene Regulation | Bacterial Genetics, Veterinary Medicine | Microbiology | Pathology. body of the guitar, which in turn vibrates the air. In lossy materials it is \$ \delta_s = \frac{1}{Re\{j\omega \sqrt{\mu \epsilon}\}} \$, https://electronics.stackexchange.com/questions/33537/why-do-higher-frequency-waves-have-better-penetration/322928#322928, https://electronics.stackexchange.com/questions/33537/why-do-higher-frequency-waves-have-better-penetration/327197#327197, https://electronics.stackexchange.com/questions/33537/why-do-higher-frequency-waves-have-better-penetration/432088#432088, https://electronics.stackexchange.com/questions/33537/why-do-higher-frequency-waves-have-better-penetration/96898#96898. Hence the use of low frequencies for fog horns. There is no linear relation however since there are many different phenomena that attenuate electromagnetic waves. Is this correct? If you consider a purely theoretical model, the so-called skin depth, which gives the thickness of the layer of a conductor to which an electromagnetic wave of a given frequency is able to penetrate it, you will see that the skin depth is inversely proportional with the square root of the frequency: \$ \delta = \sqrt{\frac{2\rho}{\omega\mu}}\$. The shorter wavelength has a higher frequency and vice versa. … High frequencies? In the example you give, the high frequency signal that goes through the ionosphere will potentially travel for millions of light years. It is not true that higher frequencies always penetrate further than lower ones. Two gorillas were just diagnosed with Covid in CA. That is why microwave ovens typically operate around 2.4 GHz. Was a genuine question. [–]yalogin[S] 1 point2 points3 points 7 years ago (1 child). The end result is that more energy is required for higher frequency signals than lower frequency signals. I was told that lower frequency sound waves (like from a bass guitar) travel lower to the ground that higher frequencies. I was thinking about both sound and electromagnetic waves. Sounds like you would be interested in free space path loss. On earth, attenuation will depend on the medium the wave is travelling in and on the frequency of the wave. high frequency light travels slightly faster than low frequency light and separates over very long distances. Before that, many top design engineers were skeptical of its benefits versus costs and practicality. Wireless technologies including signal processing and fractional-wavelength antenna design are being increasingly used to counter the negative impacts of signal propagation in order to become practical for communications. For a variety of technical reasons, comparing lower (mid range 433MHz) and higher frequency 2.4GHz) compares like this: The lower frequency signals travel further than because the energy is higher and more concentrated in a single steady fashion that isn't absorbed as easily by air, which consists of a good deal of moisture. The intensity of the radiation hitting the barrier Human ears can register sounds from about 20 Hz in frequency up to 20,000 Hz, depending of course, upon the hearer. Several years ago, MIMO was emerging from prior use in defense and aerospace radars and communications into fabrication into semiconductors used in WiFi and mobile communications. Do higher pitched sounds travel faster than low frequency sounds? An AM modulated station in a higher frequency (Mhz) would travel less than one in a lower frequency (Khz) given the same amount of radiated power. Asked by: Bill Lester Answer The lower frequencies of sound don't necessarily travel any closer to the ground, by virtue of their frequency. When an object vibrates it causes other objects around it to vibrate. In urban condition, where we need to penetrate walls, does 2.4GHz travel further than 433MHz radio? The issue of how signals travel is complex and must often be confined to a use-case in order to weigh the impacts or else it becomes unwieldy. Frequency. The sub-field of wireless has emerged to greatly benefit wireless communications, commercial radars and other applications. Low frequency waves are reflected at the first open tone hole, higher frequency waves travel further (which can allow cross fingering) and sufficiently high frequency waves travel down the tube past the open holes. The intensity of radiation transmitted depends on several things: The higher frequency at 2.4 GHz is able to cut a path through the molecular structure of many materials but it's trade off is that moisture in free air tends to dampen the signal. [–]yalogin[S] 1 point2 points3 points 7 years ago* (3 children). You’re only coherent [wave phase and amplitude […] ), device and equipment availability and cost relative to alternatives. It can bounce (reflectance or scattering), pass through (transmittance), or just plain stop (absorbance). What you are apparently thinking of is wavelengths so short that the energy is very high, like xrays and gamma rays. In addition depending on the industry certain terms are or are not used. Are the two doses of COVID vaccine exactly the same? VHF as a meter big squash ball - very squishy so it doesn't bounce around very well before it dies -UHF as a basket ball, has more ability to bounce around and hit more surfaces - Gig as a small super ball, able to bounce around like crazy before it dies out and fit through smaller openings. This leads into the Friis transmission equation which also takes into account the gain of the antennas, polarization, etc. [–]addrian27 2 points3 points4 points 7 years ago (0 children). In general, low frequency waves travel further than high frequency waves because there is less energy transferred to the medium. However, that also causes signals to interfere unless signals that cross into a common area/space are differentiated in some fashion so that the interfering signals can be filtered by use of analog means or digital signal processing. In terms of electromagnetic waves, generally higher frequency (shorter wavelength/higher energy) waves travel through objects more easily than lower frequency (longer wavelength/lower energy) waves. Therefore to keep the speed constant if the frequencies increase automatically the wave length will be shorter and vice versa. @pstan, in an infinite dielectric with no boundaries a lower frequency will still travel further. As far as sound is concerned I'm pretty sure it's easier to hear high frequencies from further away, however, low frequencies pass through object better. You can also provide a link from the web. If so, why is this the case? These go thru things solely because of their high energy. Why do higher frequency waves have better penetration. These effect vary in non-monotonic ways as a function of wavelength, the depth of the material, it's resistivity, density, and other properties. [–]VulGerrity -2 points-1 points0 points 7 years ago (7 children). Low frequency (long wave length) sound waves in the atmosphere (or water- ask any whale!) Sound Attenuation: The sound waves are sub-section of mechanical waves which can be further classified as longitudinal waves. At lower energies (longer wavelengths), the waves interact with the material in various ways so that they can get absorbed, refracted, reflected, and re-emitted. For further insights, look at line-of-sight propagation: microwave frequency can be refracted by smaller object than lower radio frequency, as it's strongly dependent on the wavelength. EDIT: This is not conjecture or a wise crack as far as I can tell. Is this true? They also allow a wider band for modulating signals, so you can obtain higher frequency transmission. However, signals also are absorbed more in common building materials, foliage, and other objects. This has to do with what absorbs the particles riding on the specific frequency, as well as what has a multiplication effect (see resonance). A high frequency sound has a greater wavelength than a low frequency sound. Does sound travel faster in warm or cold air? Consequently, a sound wave can only propagate through a limited distance. [–]ThisIsManada 20Answer Link1 point2 points3 points 7 years ago (0 children). The way signals interact with obstacles is more complex than the baseline calculations: The way walls or other materials are formed can impede signals to a greater/lesser extent depending on the wavelength. In an urban environment buildings bounce the RF around so the more bounces you can get before it dies means the greater likely hood it will find it's way into a building via windows/doors etc. Click here to upload your image Not all radio waves travel farther at night than during the day, but some, short and medium wave, which AM radio signals fall under, definitely can given the right conditions. [–]Perlscrypt 3 points4 points5 points 7 years ago (5 children). The answer to this question has to do with the nature of waves. How are the Black Sea and Caspian Sea not considered lakes in this day and age? [–]IsItTuesday 20Answer Link1 point2 points3 points 7 years ago (0 children). The thickness of the barrier. Those equal signs should be understood to mean "monotonically related to", not "same as". Signals tend to bounce more, causing multiple reflected signals to occur in areas where the signal is non-line-of-sight (NLOS). The low frequency waves that bounce off the ionosphere will get trapped inside the earths atmosphere and will probably not travel more than a few thousand kms. The physics are complicated; however, you can find a graph here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Atmospheric_electromagnetic_opacity.svg. The way signals propagate through the atmosphere/space, hit and pass through, are absorbed, and bounce along a reflected path, as the discussion exposes, is complex. The very high frequency (high energy gamma rays) and very low frequency (ELF signalling) will penetrate almost anything, in between there's so many factors it's hard to write general rules. At higher frequencies, wavelengths are reduced such that they may pass through openings or lattice type structures while lower frequency signals may be absorbed or reflected. After that you enter IR which like terahertz starts having interactions with chemicals heavily(terahertz hates water) and then you get to visible light. No, for electromagnetic waves. The wavelength of the radiation A high pitch frequency takes a lot of energy to create and a lot of energy to keep it going. [–][deleted] 2 points3 points4 points 7 years ago* (0 children). 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What is the difference between Energy, Power and Intensity of a wave? [–]Perlscrypt 50Answer Link4 points5 points6 points 7 years ago (2 children). Waves can move in two ways. [–]cliffburton90 1 point2 points3 points 7 years ago (0 children). Frequency is one way to define how fast a wave moves. The graph of transparency of various materials as a function of wavelength can be quite lumpy. PhysicsDo waves with lower frequency travel further than waves with higher frequency? Higher frequency sounds are immediately absorbed by the walls, that's why they pass around corners better than through the walls. If you are thinking about electromagnetic propagation in the atmosphere (e.g. For a variety of technical reasons, comparing lower (mid range 433MHz) and higher frequency 2.4GHz) compares like this: The lower frequency signals travel further than because the energy is higher and more concentrated in a single steady fashion that isn't absorbed as easily by air, which consists of a good deal of moisture. They can be, but arbitrarily they have been designated at different frequencies for broadcast (at least in the US) with FM having a higher frequency than AM. At the same time, they will more easily leak through holes: a rule of thumb is that if you have a hole of the size of the wavelength, the signal can leak through it. absorption by oxygen (in the air). For example, sound equipment, most people who talk about Power, are talking Power(RMS) not just Power(Peak to Peak). However, the age we now live in is the age of multiple-frequency band communications in which the best band is the most opportunistic and suited to the needs of the application(s). Also low base sounds pass through walls and a lot of solid objects better because things like walls resonate at low frequencies, thus get a positive multiplication to their amplitude. In general though, the penetration of an EM wave is determined by the absorption of whatever you're trying to penetrate. While there are a lot of similarities between them there are subtle differences too. Before you get to visible light you still go through the terahertz spectrum where both quasi-optical approaches are used and waveguides can be built easily with pieces of metal. The frequency is nothing but the number of waves generated per second. Energy versus Power versus Intensity versus Amplitude, these terms are probably confusing because in specific in applications the variants of the term mean different things but certain things are understood. All these frequencies travel together through the vocal tract — the tubelike cavity leading from the voice box up through the throat and mouth to the outside world. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. One completion of the repeating pattern is called a cycle. EDIT: I was thinking about electromagnetic and sound waves when I posted this question. Amplitude = Energy = Intensity = Power, and so this means the wave will travel farther in general. However, a broad grounding in both the theoretical models and evolving methods to counter or take advantage of how signals travel, how absorption reduces interferences as well as impedes signal reception, and how reflection can multiply bandwidth by multiple frequencies reuse all must be considered. The signals travel farther which makes coverage easier and less costly. What does Covid look like in animals and can a disease, like covid, pose a significant risk to a specieces if there is rapid transmission? © 2021 reddit inc. All rights reserved. The higher frequencies which can be beamed much more cheaply, also, for practical considerations, do actually need to be beamed in order to keep the received field strength up to a reasonable level at the receiving end, many wavelengths away from the transmitter. That is even higher frequency then light. But at the same time, you can't rely on it for a good transmission: so I'd say that the limit is quite fuzzy. Re: Why do low frequency waves seem to travel farther than high frequency waves Date: Fri Nov 19 22:10:34 1999 Posted By: John Link, Physics Area of science: Physics ID: 942890407.Ph How does any photon reach exactly the energy needed to excite a particular atom? The higher frequency bands have stood to benefit the most because of less scattering, straighter line-of-sight affords better signal discrimination/isolation. But I would not mind learning about ocean waves as well :), [–][deleted] 160Answer Link15 points16 points17 points 7 years ago (10 children). Attenuation is the gradual loss of energy which will in most cases happen over distance. Because of this it easily interrupted by outside forces and does not travel a far distance. (max 2 MiB). The VLF and lower frequencies can penetrate the ocean surface and are generally not affected by environmental changes, making them a reliable one-way communication tool. They might attenuate sooner, but they travel at the same speed as other sound waves. AM and FM can be used at any frequency. they will propagate forever), but this is not usually the case. Sound waves do exactly the same thing, which is why we can hear around corners. How do these relate to the frequency and amplitude and more so the attenuation of a wave over distance? Why the downvotes? These are prominent design considerations among others. There are a wide variety of military uses for electromagnetic radiation in the HF and lower frequencies. These are basically 2 different techniques for encoding audio signals in an electromagnetic signal. This question is probably better suited to the physics stackexchange. Imagine you're sitting in a room off a corridor and, much Physics of Sound | Waveforms, Interference Patterns, Frequency … use the following search parameters to narrow your results: We make our world significant by the courage of our questions and by the depth of our answers. But we are talking very low frequencies here overall compared to radio, light, etc... the application matters a lot, but the principles are the same. Bringing this understanding into the world of applications requires practical considerations of component (antennas, chips, etc. This has nothing to do with how far the waves travel. 3. Where do we get stomach flu viruses from? But high frequencies are more sensitive to reflection, so they will have a harder time passing through walls and obstacles in general. AM is simpler to encode and decode, FM results in a clearer signal and can also encode stereo broadcasts. It might be useful to specify whether you are interested in the details of electromagnetic waves, sound waves, ocean waves or something else. Wireless HD video is serious engineering challenge (partly) because the high frequency signals necessary to provide the appropriate bandwidth tend to bounce off the walls. In free space, lower frequency signals seems to go farther because the signal is either diffracted by the ground or reflected by the upper atmospheric layers, making it actually go farther. This has also as a consequence that AC currents do not use the whole cross-section of a wire (and a properly designed hollow one would do the same job) and that's (partly) why a smaller antenna will do for proper transmission. Aren't AM waves a higher frequency? 1 This can explain the downward trend we saw with the frequencies; 146.832Hz, 195.998Hz, 261.626Hz, and 349.228Hz. This concept can be showcased by taking elephants into consideration as an example of a low frequency traveling a far distance. In fact higher frequencies have worse penetration capabilities. On the other hand, molecules or component structure of materials can be resonant to particular frequencies: for example, water molecules are resonant at primary nodes near 2.4 GHz, 3.1 GHz. Low frequency waves are reflected at the first open tone hole, higher frequency waves travel further (which can allow crossfingering) and sufficiently high frequency waves travel down the tube past the open holes. Rendered by PID 12083 on r2-app-0ab35aca4d44dd640 at 2021-01-12 02:43:26.869890+00:00 running 0131643 country code: IN. Are you allowed to have sex after getting a Covid Vaccine? Therefore , in the daytime , the frequencies higher than 178 MHz may transmit the F layer and go to space. The molecules in the medium, as they are forced to vibrate back and forth, generate heat. Low frequency do travel further than high frequency on earth because the high frequency wave lengths are more easily absorbed by the molecules in the air. Googling about this quickly got me more confused. But AM radio waves can travel farther than FM radio waves. This is why when there's a party going on near by, all you hear is the bass. (\$\rho\$ is the resistivity, \$\mu\$ the magnetic permeability of the material). More amplitude, more energy, means more energy to be lost, means it can travel farther before it loses all of it's energy generally speaking. In general these are all talking about the same thing though. Rather than use narrow-band antennas, for example, MIMO, multiple-input, multiple-output, signaling methods receive the multi-path signals and differentiate them in time-space, an analog function, digitize them and use signal processing to align for time differentiation caused by signal travel. Low-frequency sounds are 500 Hz or lower while high-frequency waves are above 2000 Hz. The physical microstructure of the barrier At lower frequencies a wavelength is longer, making it more difficult to design antennas to fit into small devices. REDDIT and the ALIEN Logo are registered trademarks of reddit inc. π Rendered by PID 12083 on r2-app-0ab35aca4d44dd640 at 2021-01-12 02:43:26.869890+00:00 running 0131643 country code: IN. Frequency is a measurement of how often a recurring event such as a wave occurs in a measured amount of time. That is the reason AM waves actually travel even to out of sight areas (for the transmitter). This depends very much on the medium through which your wave needs to go through. Theoretically, is it possible for an mNRA vaccine to contain more than one genetic code? The comparison arises by the fact that microwaves have a spectrum that is more similar to the optical wavelengths, so they will suffer from some of the phenomena that hold for optics. https://electronics.stackexchange.com/questions/33537/why-do-higher-frequency-waves-have-better-penetration/33541#33541, https://electronics.stackexchange.com/questions/33537/why-do-higher-frequency-waves-have-better-penetration/33538#33538, https://electronics.stackexchange.com/questions/33537/why-do-higher-frequency-waves-have-better-penetration/33542#33542, Skin depth as defined here is for good conductors only. By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy, 2021 Stack Exchange, Inc. user contributions under cc by-sa. ... All those vibrations have the same frequency. travel farther than high frequency (short wave length) sound waves because the short wave lengths are more easily absorbed by the molecules in the air. When a guitar string is plucked, it vibrates, which them vibrates the . Get an ad-free experience with special benefits, and directly support Reddit. Therefore the wave length multiplied by frequency decides the speed of travel. At really high frequencies (i.e. That introduces a specific range of interference due to the presence of water in foliage, rain, and snowfall, etc. Why do lower frequency sound travel further? First, it is said that lower frequency sound waves do travel further because they do not lose as much energy to the medium – in this case, air –that they are moving through. [–][deleted] 0 points1 point2 points 7 years ago (0 children). As I already explained above, AM and FM have no connection to frequency, except maybe in a piece of legislation written by politicians. In terms of electromagnetic waves, generally higher frequency (shorter wavelength/higher energy) waves travel through objects more easily than lower frequency (longer wavelength/lower energy) waves. Only moving waves which vary their positions with respect to time possess frequency. That more can result in ease and better multi-path signaling properties compared to lower frequency bands.
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